Bevy Version:0.14(upcoming / release candidate)

Intro: Your Data

This page is an overview, to give you an idea of the big picture of how Bevy works. Click on the various links to be taken to dedicated pages where you can learn more about each concept.


As mentioned in the ECS Intro, Bevy stores all your data for you and allows you easy and flexible access to whatever you need, wherever you need it.

The ECS's data structure is called the World. That is what stores and manages all of the data. For advanced scenarios, is possible to have multiple worlds, and then each one will behave as its own separate ECS instance. However, normally, you just work with the main World that Bevy sets up for your App.

You can represent your data in two different ways: Entities/Components, and Resources.

Entities / Components

Conceptually, you can think of it by analogy with tables, like in a database or spreadsheet. Your different data types (Components) are like the "columns" of a table, and there can be arbitrarily many "rows" (Entities) containing values / instances of various components. The Entity ID is like the row number. It's an integer index that lets you find specific component values.

Component types that are empty structs (contain no data) are called marker components. They are useful as "tags" to identify specific entities, or enable certain behaviors. For example, you could use them to identify the player entity, to mark enemies that are currently chasing the player, to select entities to be despawned at the end of the level, etc.

Here is an illustration to help you visualize the logical structure. The checkmarks show what component types are present on each entity. Empty cells mean that the component is not present. In this example, we have a player, a camera, and several enemies.

Entity (ID)TransformPlayerEnemyCameraHealth...
...
107<translation> <rotation> <scale>50.0
108<translation> <rotation> <scale>25.0
109<translation> <rotation> <scale><camera data>
110<translation> <rotation> <scale>10.0
111<translation> <rotation> <scale>25.0
...

Representing things this way gives you flexibility. For example, you could create a Health component for your game. You could then have many entities representing different things in your game, such as the player, NPCs, or monsters, all of which can have a Health value (as well as other relevant components).

The typical and obvious pattern is to use entities to represent "objects in the game/scene", such as the camera, the player, enemies, lights, props, UI elements, and other things. However, you are not limited to that. The ECS is a general-purpose data structure. You can create entities and components to store any data. For example, you could create an entity to store a bunch of settings or configuration parameters, or other abstract things.

Data stored using Entities and Components is accessed using queries. For example, if you want to implement a new game mechanic, write a system (just a Rust function that takes special parameters), specify what component types you want to access, and do your thing. You can either iterate through all entities that match your query, or access the data of a specific one (using the Entity ID).

#[derive(Component)]
struct Xp(u32);

#[derive(Component)]
struct Health {
    current: u32,
    max: u32,
}

fn level_up(
    // We want to access the Xp and Health data:
    mut query: Query<(&mut Xp, &mut Health)>,
) {
    // process all relevant entities
    for (mut xp, mut health) in query.iter_mut() {
        if xp.0 > 1000 {
            xp.0 -= 1000;
            health.max += 25;
            health.current = health.max;
        }
    }
}

Bevy can automatically keep track of what data your systems have access to and run them in parallel on multiple CPU cores. This way, you get multithreading with no extra effort from you!

What if you want to create or remove entities and components, not just access existing data? That requires special consideration. Bevy cannot change the memory layout while other systems might be running. These operations can be buffered/deferred using Commands. Bevy will apply them later when it is safe to do so. You can also get direct World access using exclusive systems, if you want to perform such operations immediately.

Bundles serve as "templates" for common sets of components, to help you when you spawn new entities, so you don't accidentally forget anything.

/// Marker for the player
#[derive(Component)]
struct Player;

/// Bundle to make it easy to spawn the player entity
/// with all the correct components:
#[derive(Bundle)]
struct PlayerBundle {
    marker: Player,
    health: Health,
    xp: Xp,
    // including all the components from another bundle
    sprite: SpriteBundle,
}

fn spawn_player(
    // needed for safely creating/removing data in the ECS World
    // (anything done via Commands will be applied later)
    mut commands: Commands,
    // needed for loading assets
    asset_server: Res<AssetServer>,
) {
    // create a new entity with whatever components we want
    commands.spawn(PlayerBundle {
        marker: Player,
        health: Health {
            current: 100,
            max: 125,
        },
        xp: Xp(0),
        sprite: SpriteBundle {
            texture: asset_server.load("player.png"),
            transform: Transform::from_xyz(25.0, 50.0, 0.0),
            // use the default values for all other components in the bundle
            ..Default::default()
        },
    });

    // Call .id() if you want to store the Entity ID of your new entity
    let my_entity = commands.spawn((/* ... */)).id();
}

Comparison with Object-Oriented Programming

Object-Oriented programming teaches you to think of everything as "objects", where each object is an instance of a "class". The class specifies the data and functionality for all objects of that type, in one place. Every object of that class has the same data (with different values) and the same associated functionality.

This is the opposite of the ECS mentality. In ECS, any entity can have any data (any combination of components). The purpose of entities is to identify that data. Your systems are loose pieces of functionality that can operate on any data. They can easily find what they are looking for, and implement the desired behavior.

If you are an object-oriented programmer, you might be tempted to define a big monolithic struct Player containing all the fields / properties of the player. In Bevy, this is considered bad practice, because doing it that way can make it more difficult to work with your data and limit performance. Instead, you should make things granular, when different pieces of data may be accessed independently.

For example, represent the player in your game as an entity, composed of separate component types (separate structs) for things like the health, XP, or whatever is relevant to your game. You can also attach standard Bevy components like Transform (transforms explained) to it.

Then, each piece of functionality (each system) can just query for the data it needs. Common functionality (like a health/damage system) can be applied to any entity with the matching components, regardless of whether that's the player or something else in the game.

If you have functionality that should only be applied to the player entity, you can use a marker component (like struct Player;) to narrow down your query (using a query filter like With<Player>).

However, if some data always makes sense to be accessed together, then you should put it in a single struct. For example, Bevy's Transform. With these types, the fields are not likely to be useful independently.

Additional Internal Details

The set / combination of components that a given entity has is called the entity's Archetype. Bevy keeps track of that internally, to organize the data in RAM. Entities of the same Archetype have their data stored together in contiguous arrays, which allows the CPU to access and cache it efficiently.

If you add/remove component types on existing entities, you are changing the Archetype, which may require Bevy to move previously-existing data to a different location.

Learn more about Bevy's component storage.

Bevy will reuse Entity IDs. The Entity type is actually two integers: the ID and a "generation". After you despawn some entities, their IDs can be reused for newly-spawned entities, but Bevy will increase the generation value.

Resources

If there is only one global instance (singleton) of something, and it is standalone (not associated with other data), create a Resource.

For example, you could create a resource to store your game's graphics settings, or an interface to a non-Bevy library.

This is a simple way of storing data, when you know you don't need the flexibility of Entities/Components.

#[derive(Resource)]
struct GameSettings {
    current_level: u32,
    difficulty: u32,
    max_time_seconds: u32,
}

fn setup_game(
    mut commands: Commands,
) {
    // Add the GameSettings resource to the ECS
    // (if one already exists, it will be overwritten)
    commands.insert_resource(GameSettings {
        current_level: 1,
        difficulty: 100,
        max_time_seconds: 60,
    });
}

fn spawn_extra_enemies(
    mut commands: Commands,
    // we can easily access our resource from any system
    game_settings: Res<GameSettings>,
) {
    if game_settings.difficulty > 50 {
        commands.spawn((
            // ...
        ));
    }
}